The 32-year-old Norwegian said it was the NATO bombing of Serbia in 1999 that ``tipped the scales'' for him because he sympathized with Serbia's crackdown on ethnic Albanian Muslims in Kosovo. A year later he said he realized that what he called the ``Islamization of Europe'' couldn't be stopped by peaceful means.
Police and Breivik's lawyer says he confessed to, but denied criminal responsibility for, Friday's bombing at government headquarters in Oslo and the mass shooting later that day at an island summer camp organized by the youth wing of the ruling Labor Party. At least 93 people were killed in the attacks.
Breivik's manifesto chronicled events that deepened his contempt for Muslims and ``Marxists'' he blamed for making Europe multicultural. He suggested his friends didn't even know what he was up to, and comments from several people who had contact with the quiet blond man indicate he was right.
Jack Levin, a professor at Northeastern University who has written a number of books on mass murderers, said the manifesto helps Breivik show himself as more human.
``It makes the killer look like a victim rather than a villain,'' Levin said.
From September 2009 through October 2010, Breivik posted more than 70 times on Dokument.no, a Norwegian site with critical views on Islam and immigration. In one comment, he entertained the idea of a European Tea Party movement.
In December of 2009, Breivik showed up at a meeting organized by the website's staff.
``He was a bit strange. As one could see from his postings, he had obviously read a lot but not really digesting it,'' said Hans Rustad, the editor of the website.
But Rustad said he ``hadn't the faintest idea'' about Breivik's murderous plans.
``Other people have the same views on the Net and they don't go out and become mass murderers. So how can you tell?'' Rustad told The Associated Press.
In the document Breivik styles himself as a Christian conservative, patriot and nationalist. He looks down on neo-Nazis as ``underprivileged racist skinheads with a short temper.''
Part of Breivik's manifesto was taken almost word for word from the first few pages of the anti-technology manifesto written by ``Unabomber'' Ted Kaczynski, who is in federal prison for mail bombs that killed three people and injured 23 others across the U.S. from the 1970s to the 1990s.
Breivik did not cite Kaczynski, though he did for many other people whose writings he used.
Breivik changed a Kaczynski screed on leftism and what he considered to be leftists' ``feelings of inferiority'' _ mainly by substituting the words ``multiculturalism'' or ``cultural Marxism'' for ``leftism.''
For instance, Kaczynski wrote: ``One of the most widespread manifestations of the craziness of our world is leftism, so a discussion of the psychology of leftism can serve as an introduction to the discussion of the problems of modern society in general.''
Breivik's manifesto reads: ``One of the most widespread manifestations of the craziness of our world is multiculturalism, so a discussion of the psychology of multiculturalists can serve as an introduction to the discussion of the problems of Western Europe in general.''
Breivik called his upbringing in a middle-class home in Oslo privileged even though his parents divorced when he was 1 and he lost contact with his father in his teens. His parents split when the family lived in London, where his father, Jens Breivik, was a diplomat at the Norwegian Embassy in London. A spokesman for the embassy, Stein Iversen, confirmed that Jens Breivik was employed at the embassy in the late 1970s, but wouldn't discuss his relationship with the Oslo suspect.
Breivik said both parents supported Norway's center-left Labor Party, which he viewed as infiltrated by Marxists.
His mother won a custody battle, but Breivik said he regularly visited his father and his new wife in France, where they lived, until his father cut off contact when Breivik was 15. The father told Norwegian newspaper VG that they lost touch in 1995, but that it was his son who wanted to cut off contact.
``We've never lived together, but we had some contact in his childhood,'' the older Breivik, who VG said is now retired in France, was quoted as saying. ``When he was young he was an ordinary boy, but reclusive. He wasn't interested in politics at the time.''
He learned about Breivik's massacre on the Internet. ``I was reading online newspapers and then I suddenly saw his name and picture on the net,'' he told VG. ``It was a shock to find out. I haven't gotten over it yet.''
Breivik's mother lives in an ivy-covered brick apartment building in western Oslo, currently protected by police. Neighbors said they hadn't seen her since a few days before the shooting. Police said they've spoken to her and that she didn't know of her son's plans.
In his manifesto, Breivik said he had no negative experiences from his childhood, though he had issues with his mother being a ``moderate feminist.''
``I do not approve of the super-liberal, matriarchal upbringing though as it completely lacked discipline and has contributed to feminize me to a certain degree,'' he said.
But Breivik claims he never lacked courage: ``If anyone threatened me or my friends, regardless if we were at a disadvantage, we would rather face our foes than submit and lose face.'' He said that attitude was atypical among ethnic Norwegians, who had a tendency to ``sissy out.''
In Internet postings attributed to Breivik on Norwegian websites, he blamed Europe's left-wing parties for destroying the continent's Christian heritage by allowing mass immigration of Muslims.
He said he came in contact with like-minded individuals across Europe, and together they formed a military order inspired by the Knights Templar crusaders. Their goal was to seize power in Europe by 2083 in a string of coups d'etat. Norwegian police couldn't say whether the group existed.
Two European security officials who spoke on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to speak about the investigation said they were familiar with increased Internet chatter from individuals claiming they belonged to a group called the new Knights Templar.
Breivik said he also tried to get engaged in domestic politics, in the Progress Party, an a populist opposition party which calls for stricter immigration controls. He claims he was a popular party member who almost got elected to the Oslo City Council seven years ago.
``That's just something he imagined,'' said Joeran Kallmyr, whom Breivik described as his ``rival'' in the party.
Breivik attended only five or six party meetings during those two years and left the party quietly, said Kallmyr, now a vice mayor of Oslo.
"He was very quiet, almost shy. He seemed like a well-educated man. He was very well dressed and very polite. He wore a tie all the time,'' Kallmyr said. ``I couldn't see any signs that he was coming apart.''
Kallmyr said he only had one conversation with Breivik, a forgettable chat about Breivik's business. According to Breivik's manifesto, he was the director of Anders Behring Breivik ENK at the time, a business he describes as a ``front'' and a ``milking cow'' to finance ``resistance/liberation related military operations.''
He describes elsewhere in the document how he used his own companies to secure bank loans and credit to fund his attack.
Breivik, who detailed his preparations for the attacks in eerie detail, also anticipated the hostility he would face, even from his friends and family, if he survived his ``mission'' and was brought to trial.
Levin said that part could be part of the motivation for the manifesto.
``He talks about visiting prostitutes and taking steroids. Why would he say such negative things about himself? I think what he's doing is _ this humanizes him,'' Levin said. ``He's trying to tell people he's not a monster, that he's a person with frailties and weaknesses like everybody else.''
테러범은..외교관아들, 여친없는 마마보이
(서울=연합뉴스) 연쇄테러로 '평온한 나라' 노르웨이를 한순간에 충격에 몰아넣은 용의자 안드레스 베링 브레이빅(32)에 대한 궁금증이 커지고 있다.
브레이빅은 인터넷 선언문 등을 통해 다문화주의에 대한 강한 거부감을 드러내며 자신을 '반 무슬림 혁명'을 꿈꾸는 운동가로 묘사했다.
하지만 언론들은 이번 테러를 '21세기 광기의 십자군 전쟁' 등으로 묘사하며 그를 극우주의 학살자로 규정하고 있다.
그는 비디오게임이나 보디빌딩 등에 관심이 있는 '도시형 남성' 스타일로, 평소 생활에선 93명을 희생시킬 만큼의 잔인함이나 극단주의 성향은 노출하지 않았다고 AFP 등 외신들이 24일(현지시각) 전했다.
◇"어린시절 평범한 소년" = 용의자 브레이빅은 자신이 특별할 것이 없는 평범한 어린 시절을 보냈다고 소개하고 있다.
외교관인 아버지와 간호사였던 어머니 사이에서 태어났으며 그의 부모는 한 살 때 이혼을 했다.
그는 인터넷 선언문 등에서 "나는 책임 있는 사람들 곁에서 우수한 가정교육을 받았다"고 주장했다.
부모 이혼 뒤에는 어머니로부터 보살핌을 받았으며 스스로 한 번도 경제적인 문제로 어려움을 겪지는 않았다고 밝혔다.
그의 아버지도 언론 인터뷰에서 "아들이 어렸을 때는 평범한 소년이었으며 다만 다른 사람들과 말을 잘하는 아이는 아니었다"고 회고했다.
◇20대 때 우파성향 정당 가입 = 브레이빅은 12년 전인 지난 1999년 우파 성향의 진보당에 가입하면서 이 정당의 지역 청년 지부에서 활동했다고 AFP는 전했다.
그는 7년여 동안 정당에서 활동하다 2006년 탈퇴했다. 그는 인터넷에 남긴 글을 통해 이 정당이 다문화주의에 호의적이라는 점을 지적했다.
이 정당 관계자는 "그를 기억하는 사람들은 그가 수줍음을 많이 타는 소년이었으며 토론에도 적극적이지 않은 사람으로 기억하고 있다"고 전했다.
브레이빅의 친구는 노르웨이 언론과의 인터뷰에서 그가 20대 후반에 우파 성향의 극단주의자가 됐다고 진술하고 있다.
한편 그가 이슬람 문화에 대해 관심을 두게 된 것은 1차 걸프전이 발발한 20여 년 전으로 거슬러 올라간다고 AP는 전했다.
그는 이전에는 정치에 관심이 없는 소년이었지만 당시 이슬람 친구들이 미군에 대한 미사일 공격 보도를 접하고 흥분하는 것 등을 보면서 관심을 갖게 됐다고 선언문에서 밝혔다.
◇이웃 주민들 "외로운 도시형 남성" = 그가 지난달 말부터 머물렀던 노르웨이 헤드마르크 지방의 레나라는 시골마을 주민들은 그를 '도시형 남성'으로 기억했다.
한 주민은 "그가 컴퓨터 가방을 메고 잘 차려입고 다니는 등 그가 농부라는 사실이 이상하게 생각됐다"고 진술했다.
또 그가 한 번씩 들른 것으로 알려진 술집 종업원은 "여기 사람들은 누구도 맥주를 사고 영수증을 요구하지는 않는데 그는 영수증을 요구하고 카드로 술값을 결제했다"고 기억했다.
다른 주민들도 그가 공손했지만, 시골에 맞지 않는 사람으로 회상했다.
◇비디오게임·보디빌딩 관심 = 언론들은 브레이빅을 극단주의자로 규정하고 있지만 정작 그는 스스로 '느긋한 타입이며 관대한 사람'이라고 주장했다.
레이빅은 또 "스킨헤드족은 결코 나의 선택이 될 수 없었다. 그들의 옷 입는 스타일이나 음악적 취향 등은 나의 관심을 끌지 못했으며 나는 그들이 극단적이라고 생각했다"고 성명 등에서 밝혔다.
그는 페이스북에서 자신을 보수주의자, 기독교도 등으로 소개했다.
아울러 사냥이나 '월드 오브 워 크래프트'나 '모던 워 페어 2' 같은 비디오 게임을 좋아한다고 밝혔다.
그의 페이스북은 현재 접촉이 제한되고 있지만 보디빌딩 등에 대한 그의 관심의 흔적은 발견할 수 있다고 외신들은 전했다.
세금납부실적을 보면 지난 2009년 이전까지는 거의 수입이 없는 것으로 나타났다. 다만, 올해 초 작은 규모의 농지를 사들인 것으로 파악됐다.
그는 이 농지를 사들임으로써 주변 사람의 의심을 받지 않고 이번 노르웨이 정부 청사 테러에 사용한 것으로 추정되는 6t의 비료와 화공약품 등을 살 수 있었다고 외신은 전했다.
그는 또 사냥 클럽에 가입, 범행에 사용한 총기류를 구입할 수 있는 허가를 받았다.
경제권과 성적 자유를 주장하는 여자들과 사귀며 겪는 고민도 실명을 밝혀가며 자세히 소개했다. 그는 선언문에서 "친구들 가운데 나만 여자 친구가 없다. 2011년 8월부턴 어떻게든 여자를 만날 것"이라는 신변 얘기도 털어놓았다고 데일리 텔레그래프는 전했다.
선언문의 전반적 요지는 오는 2083년까지 유럽 각국이 극우 보수 정권으로 정권 교체를 이뤄 무슬림 이민자를 내쫓아야 한다는 의미에서 중동 이슬람 국가들을 제압할 수 있는 새로운 유럽을 탄생시켜 기독교 문화를 바로세워야 한다는 것으로 압축된다.